Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

Karina V Soerensen, Tanja K Thorning, Arne Astrup, Mette Kristensen, and Janne K Lorenzen


From the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.


Supported by The Danish Council for Strategic Research in Health, Food and Welfare, Danish Dairy Research Foundation.

Address correspondence to M Kristensen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. E-mail: Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla..">Esta dirección de correo electrónico está protegida contra spambots. Usted necesita tener Javascript activado para poder verla..

Background: Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.

Objective: We investigated whether milk- and cheese-based diets with similar calcium contents affect a saturated fatty acid–induced increase in blood lipids differently.

Design: Fifteen healthy, young men participated in a randomized 3 × 2-wk crossover study in which the following 3 isocaloric diets that were similar in fat contents and compositions were compared: control diet [nondairy diet (∼500 mg Ca/d)], milk diet [semiskimmed milk–based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)], and cheese diet [semihard cow-cheese–based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)]. Blood was drawn before and after each period, and feces were collected for 5 d during each period.

Results: Saturated fatty acid–induced increases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were lower with the milk diet (mean ± SD: 0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.53 ± 0.11 mmol/L, respectively) (P < 0.01) and cheese diet (0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.47 ± 0.12 mmol/L, respectively) (P < 0.05) than with the control diet (0.89 ± 0.12 and 0.84 ± 0.11 mmol/L, respectively). Fecal fat excretion increased more with the consumption of both the milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P < 0.001). Changes in blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ.

Conclusions: Compared with the control diet, milk- and cheese-based diets attenuated saturated fatty acid–induced increases in total and LDL cholesterol and resulted in increased fecal fat excretion; however, effects of milk and cheese did not differ. Because the diets contained similar amounts of saturated fat, similar increases in total and LDL cholesterol could be expected; however, both milk and cheese attenuated these responses, which seem to be explained by their calcium contents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01317251.

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