Publimed. May 2013
Perez-Leighton CE, Butterick-Peterson TA, Billington CJ, Kotz CM.
Graduate Program of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
The orexin peptides and their two receptors are involved in multiple physiological processes, including energy homeostasis, arousal, stress and reward.
The American journal of Clinical Nutrition. May 2013
Bamini Gopinath, Victoria M Flood, Elena Rochtchina, Jie Jin Wang, and Paul Mitchell
From the Centre for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology and Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia (BG, ER, JJW, and PM); the Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of Wollongong, Sydney, Australia (VMF); and the Centre for Eye Research Australia, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (JJW).
The Blue Mountains Eye Study was supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (grants 974159, 991407, 211069, and 262120), Kellogg's Pty Ltd, and Westmead Millennium Institute. BG is supported by a Macular Degeneration Foundation and Blackmores Dr Paul Beaumont Fellowship.
Address correspondence to P Mitchell, Centre for Vision Research, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, New South Wales 2145, Australia. E-mail:
Background: Epidemiologic evidence of a relation between serum total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B-12, and folate and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is inconsistent and unresolved.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. April 2013
Compared to females, males experience a range of health inequities including higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although sitting time is emerging as a distinct risk factor for chronic disease, research on the association of sitting time and chronic disease in middle-aged Australian males is limited.
A sample of 63,048 males aged 45-64 years was drawn from the baseline dataset of the 45 and Up Study – a longitudinal cohort study on healthy ageing with 267,153 participants from across New South Wales, Australia’s most populous state. Baseline data on self-reported chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, combined chronic diseases), sitting time, physical activity (Active Australia Survey), and a range of covariates were used for cross-sectional analyses. Crude (OR), partially and fully adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using binary logistic regression.
Compared to those sitting <4 hours/day, participants reporting 4 to <6, 6 to <8, and ≥8 hours were significantly more likely to report ever having any chronic disease (AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 – 1.12, p = 0.050; AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.16, p = 0.003; AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.15, p = 0.002, respectively). Participants who reported 6 to <8 hours and ≥8 hours of sitting were also significantly more likely to report ever having diabetes than those reporting <4 hours/day (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.28, p = 0.016; AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.33, p <0.001, respectively).
Our findings suggest that higher volumes of sitting time are significantly associated with diabetes and overall chronic disease, independent of physical activity and other potentially confounding factors. Prospective studies using valid and reliable measures into domain-specific sitting time in middle-aged males are required to understand and explain the direction of these relationships.
Eurekalert. April 2013
Scientists of Friedrich Schiller University Jena and Jena University Hospital decode the antihypertensive impact of omega-3 fatty acids.
Jena (Germany) Fish is healthy: easy to digest and with a high level of precious proteins, fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet. And with the so-called omega-3 fatty acids fish contains real 'fountains of youth'. These fatty acids – like docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) occur mostly in fatty fish like herring, salmon and mackerel. They are thought to lower the blood pressure, to strengthen the immune system and to have positive effects on the development on the nervous system and the cardiovascular system.
"Clinical studies about the intake of nutritional supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids haven't provided complete clarity so far," Prof. Dr. Stefan H. Heinemann from Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany) says. "The molecular impact of the omega-3 fatty acids isn't fully understood yet," the biophysicist continues. But now scientists of the DFG research group FOR 1738 based at Jena University are able to bring new facts to light: in two newly published articles for the well-known science magazine 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA' they describe how they analyzed the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on a systemic level and they also described the underlying molecular mechanisms for the first time.
The teams around Prof. Heinemann (Jena University), Prof. Dr. Michael Bauer (Jena University Hospital) and Prof. Dr. Toshinori Hoshi (University of Pennsylvania) were able to show that the so-called 'SLO1' potassium channel is an important component in the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids. "These ionic channels act like very specific receptors for DHA and are opened by the binding of the omega-3 fatty acids," Biophysicist Heinemann explains. In the case of other omega-3 fatty acids – like the shorter eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) extracted from plants – the impact is much weaker.
MedPage Today. April 2013
By Michael Smith, North American Correspondent, MedPage Today
Published: February 25, 2013
Reviewed by Robert Jasmer, MD; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco and Dorothy Caputo, MA, BSN, RN, Nurse Planner
Eating a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil or nuts reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events by nearly 30% compared with a control group eating a low-fat diet among people at increased risk for heart disease.
Point out that the Mediterranean diet recommended for the study had olive oil, fruit, nuts, vegetables, legumes, some fish and poultry, and limited amounts of dairy products, red meat, soda drinkgs, processed meats, and sweets.
Eating a Mediterranean diet rich in unrefined olive oil or nuts lowered the rate of major cardiovascular events, at least among people at increased risk for heart disease, researchers reported.
In a randomized trial in Spain in high-risk people, those who ate the Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or mixed nuts saw a reduction in the rate of major cardiovascular events by nearly 30% compared with a control group eating a low-fat diet, according to Ramón Estruch, MD, PhD, of the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona, and colleagues.
The results support the use of the Mediterranean diet for "primary prevention" of heart disease, the researchers wrote online in the New England Journal of Medicine.